Measuring Psychological Safety in your Team

measuring psychological safety

We know psychological safety is crucial for high performance teams, and particularly so for technical delivery teams. Innovation is so critical for creating products that delight customers and serve critical business needs, and psychological safety is a fundamental enabler of innovation.

Below are ten questions that you can ask yourself or your teams to determine the level of psychological safety in your team. Rate agreement with the below statements on a scale of 1 – 5. 5 being “completely agree” and 1 being “completely disagree”.

When carrying this exercise out with your team, perform the survey anonymously – if it’s possible that your team are psychologically unsafe, they will be more likely to be honest if the survey is anonymous. If the team are very psychologically safe, then it won’t matter if the survey is anonymous or not.

It is also important to allow for qualitative, verbose feedback for each question as well, because that verbose feedback will facilitate and clarify some of the actions that you may need to take in order to improve these scores.

  1. On this team, I understand what is expected of me.
  2. We value outcomes more than outputs or inputs, and nobody needs to “look busy”.
  3. If I make a mistake on this team, it is never held against me.
  4. When something goes wrong, we work as a team to find the systemic cause.
  5. All members of this team feel able to bring up problems and tough issues.
  6. Members of this team never reject others for being different and nobody is left out.
  7. It is safe for me to take a risk on this team.
  8. It is easy for me to ask other members of this team for help.
  9. Nobody on this team would deliberately act in a way that undermines my efforts.
  10. Working with members of this team, my unique skills and talents are valued and utilised.

To explain the context behind each question:

1 – On this team, I understand what is expected of me.

It is essential that team members understand what is expected of them in terms of delivery (speed, quality, cost, and other factors) and behaviour (everything from dress code and punctuality to coding standards) to foster psychological safety. Ensure tasks are clear and well defined, behaviour expectations are explicit, and negative behaviours are dealt with.

2 – We value outcomes more than outputs or inputs, and nobody needs to “look busy”.

Outcomes (such as revenue generated or satisfied customers) matter more than outputs (emails sent, lines of code written, or meetings attended). If the team focus on what truly matters to the business, they are safe to make decisions that can improve outcomes, even if those decisions reduce output. The ideal is a team that possesses enough psychological safety to decide not to do something that could make them look good in the eyes of others, but doesn’t deliver outcomes for the business.

3 – If I make a mistake on this team, it is never held against me.

A psychologically safe team will never blame a member of the team for a genuine mistake if their intentions were good. Indeed, by enabling mistakes to be made without a fear of blame, you enable innovation and risk taking that can drive your organisation ahead of the competition. Utilise systems thinking and DevOps approaches to prevent mistakes before they happen or mitigate the impact of mistakes when they do.

4 – When something goes wrong, we work as a team to find the systemic cause.

Related to the previous point but important enough to warrant its own question, a system of discovering the root causes of mistakes and failures means that not only do team members feel able to take risks without being blamed, but every single “failure” is an opportunity for learning and improvement. By building psychological safety through these retrospective exercises, everyone on the team gets to learn from mistakes, meaning mistakes are a gift, not a threat.

5 – All members of this team feel able to bring up problems and tough issues.

In a psychologically safe team, all members of the team are able to bring up problems and tough issues, ranging from personal struggles to concerns about other (even senior) members of the team. This psychological safety is crucial for allowing both vulnerability to show when you’re struggling and need help, and courage to raise difficult topics.

6 – Members of this team never reject others for being different and nobody is left out.

Evidence shows that diversity in a team results in higher quality products and happier team members, but diversity in itself is not enough: it is crucial that team members are all included in decision making and delivering results. To facilitate psychological safety (and high performance) every member of the team needs to be invested in the decisions made and the outcomes generated. This is particularly crucial for remote and distributed teams, where it is more difficult to see if a team member is becoming disengaged.

7 – It is safe for me to take a risk on this team.

Mistakes happen unintentionally, but risks are about taking actions that might not work, or may have unintended consequences. Psychological safety provides the framework for positive risk-taking, enabling innovation and ultimately, competitive advantage.

8 – It is easy for me to ask other members of this team for help.

In psychologically unsafe teams, team members try to hide their perceived weaknesses or vulnerabilities, which prevents them from asking for help. In a psychologically safe team, members prioritise the team goals over individual goals. Helping others helps achieve the team goal, and because team members feel safe to ask for that help, psychologically safe teams achieve more of their goals than unsafe teams.

9 – Nobody on this team would deliberately act in a way that undermines my efforts. 

In an unsafe team, members compete with each other to achieve their individual goals, and may even undermine other team members if it could benefit them or it is perceived that doing so may elevate their “rank” within the team or organisation. In a psychologically safe team, that counter-productive competition doesn’t exist, and the success of the team is more important looking good in the eyes of others.

10 – Working with members of this team, my unique skills and talents are valued and utilised.

We all bring our own unique experience, skills and knowledge to the teams that we’re in, but we also bring our own prejudices and biases. In a psychologically safe team where members are valued for being their true selves, biases are less likely to manifest. Indeed, team members may feel safe enough to identify, raise, and discuss their own biases or those of other team members. By doing so, we provide space for each individual to maximise their potential from utilising their own unique skills and talents.

Regularly Measuring Psychological Safety

By measuring the degree of psychological safety on your team, you can begin to build your own unique strategy for developing and maintaining it. For instance, this may involve running more regular retrospectives or by workshopping the team’s values and behaviours.

Measurement is only a tiny part of the process. Download a complete Psychological Safety Action Pack full of workshops, tools, resources, and posters to help you measure, build, and maintain Psychological Safety in your teams.

Remember to be patient: this is a journey, not a destination, and work on your own psychological safety too. You can’t effectively help others if you don’t look after yourself.

Take this survey for yourself.

10 travel tips you might not read elsewhere.

May partner and I have been on the road for around 9 months now, travelling around Europe and South East Asia, and I’ve learned a few things about myself, the world, and how to travel. Some things are obvious, like how important it is to have decent travel insurance, buying local pay-as-you-go sim cards instead of racking up a big roaming bill, and setting some sort of spending budget…

However, here are ten tips (and a few bonus ones) that you might not read on the average travel blog.

Vietnamese lizard
  1. Everything breaks, so get good at fixing stuff, and learn to sew. Pack superglue, electrical tape, and a small sewing kit, and you can fix just about anything. I’ve repaired shoes, shorts, sleeping bags, watches, sunglasses, bags and cameras over the past few months.
    Repair on a sleeping bag.

    Sugru is also a great resource, but each pouch has to be used immediately once it’s opened, so take some, but use it as a last resort. And seriously, learn some basic sewing skills, like darning socks, sewing on buttons, or repairing rips and tears.

    solar charger, water purifier, backpack
    Halfway up to Annapurna base camp
  2. A good first aid kit is crucial. Stock up on antiseptic, plasters, bandages, bite cream, water purifying tabs, tweezers and anything else you might need personally. I even took some emergency tooth filling repair stuff, and I used it. You can also use superglue to patch up wounds, but be careful as it can get very hot when it dries, and the standard stuff sets stiff so it’s not good for cuts over skin that moves, like the soles of your feet.
    Kathmandu, Nepal

    Zinc oxide tape is great to prevent blisters and secure bandages. Electrical tape serves as a superb fix for a wound dressing if you’re going to get it wet. I cut my toes fairly badly while cliff jumping (whilst climbing up, not jumping down) and used bandages and electrical tape for a couple of weeks to keep it bandaged while in the sea.

    Cliff jumping in Vietnam
    Kayaking and paddle boarding in Vietnam

    Also stock up medicine when possible. Painkillers aren’t always available and you can go through them quicker than you’d expect. Take with you antihistamines, sleeping pills, anti-diarrhoea and rehydration salts. If you can, get some antibiotics like amoxicillin for general wound or tooth infections, and metronidazole for stomach bugs  and amoebic nasties.

    Our trekking guides, Santosh and Puskar

    If you find yourself somewhere like Nepal where you can get antibiotics over the counter, buy some. Buy more than you think you need (but not so many that you’ll be thrown in jail for smuggling prescription drugs). If you get an infection and you’re in deepest Cambodia, you really don’t want to leave it until you can find a reliable doctor.

    Walking in the Himalayas

    Buy hand sanitiser when you can find it cheaply, because it gets expensive when you’re remote. You’ll probably acclimatise to the local stomach bugs eventually, but using hand sanitiser regularly will reduce the likelihood of getting a bad one. I wasn’t careful enough in our first week in Kathmandu, and after vomiting in the street, and a very tense taxi ride, rather regretted it.

    Pub Street, Siem Reap, Cambodia
  3. Get a decent knife and learn how to use it and look after it properly. Buy one that locks open so that you don’t cut your fingers off when closing it. Keep it sharp using a decent stone or steel. Sharpening a blunted knife is really difficult, but keeping a knife sharp just takes a bit of discipline. I carried around a stone in my bag for 8 months just for this purpose. You’ll use your knife for everything from preparing food, repairing clothes, and cutting hair!

    Look after your knife.
  4. Eat local food whenever possible. Some of the most amazing food I’ve had travelling has been in the cheapest street stalls and markets. However, good local food isn’t always available. You’ll often find yourself forced to eat whatever is provided, and it might not be to your (or frankly, anyone’s) taste. Tabasco sauce can make all sorts of bland, weird, slightly off, or otherwise less-than-great food palatable. Take a little bottle of your your own with you, and even carry a few spices, salt, pepper, and sugar.
    Nepalese street food on the road to Pokhara.

    Cambodian market food
  5. Keep your hip flask topped up. I recommend whisky because it’s drinkable by itself and goes well mixed with lots of stuff from coke to coffee, gin is pretty nice to carry around but good luck finding tonic in rural SE Asia. Cognac could work for you if you’re an artist or something. Vodka if you’re doing the whole serious alcoholic thing. When you get invited to an impromptu beach party, or a chillout on a porch, you’ll be pleased you’ve got your old faithful hip flask with you.

    Chilling in Lisbon
  6. Buy a bunch of dry bags of different colours and sizes. You can almost never have too many dry bags. They’re really useful for simply keeping your kit organised and separated, so you’re not hunting around for your socks every day or wondering where your favourite big-night-out T-shirt is. It also means that if your bag gets wet or something springs a leak inside, most of your stuff will be ok. I used a big red one to keep dirty washing in (red for danger, obvs), and also used various dry bags for trips to the beach, backpacking in the rain, or kayaking trips. 

    Unpacking along the Annapurna Trek
  7. Be careful using squat toilets. In many parts of Asia, you’ll come across squat toilets. Once you get used to them, they’re actually pretty good, as long as they’re kept reasonably clean. However, make sure you zip up your pockets if possible, or at least put your phone and wallet somewhere else when you’re using a squat toilet. If something falls out, you really don’t want to be rummaging around down there, however fancy and expensive your phone is. 

    Riding around Koh Chang, Thailand.
  8. When travelling, if there are seatbelts, wear them. The same goes for helmets whilst riding motorbikes. It’s cool to be safe, kids. Driving standards outside Europe and the US are significantly lower, and in many places there’s not even a requirement to pass a test in order to drive on public roads. Our coach from Kathmandu to Pokhara overturned after having to avoid a speeding car on the wrong side of the road who’d miscalculated an overtake. We were fine, as was everyone in the coach apart from our Annapurna guide, who smacked his knee hard. We were lucky, but it could have been much worse.
    Everyone was fine, fortunately.

  9. Wear synthetic underwear. Seriously. If you’re walking a lot, or spending a lot of time in hot and humid conditions, you don’t want to be wearing cotton underwear, because they absorb water and will at best be very uncomfortable, and worst cause such severe chafing that you can barely move, or it gets infected. Synthetic underwear doesn’t absorb water, so it’s way more comfortable, particularly for trekking and/or humid weather. It’s also great for impromptu outdoors swimming, because your pants will dry quickly and frankly they’re also less transparent when wet than cotton pants…
    Swimming in cold water in El Bosque, Andalusia.

    Snorkelling in Thailand.
  10. Go offline. Going off-grid can be a great experience, especially if it’s for a decent amount of time. If you get a chance to get out into the wilderness, the mountains, or out to sea, then use that opportunity to go fully offline and away from the distractions of modern life. We went off-grid for about 12 days on our trek to Annapurna Base Camp, and it made an amazing experience even better.
    Prayer flags at Annapurna base camp

    Although initially you might suffer from bad FOMO, or fear that your parents and friends might worry if they don’t hear from you (by the way, you should probably tell people you’re going offline lest they spark an international manhunt), after a few days you’ll feel back in touch with the real world a little more, maybe feel a bit more calm, and able to be more present in the moment. You might even find that after a week or two of being off-grid, you really don’t want to reconnect after all.

    Taking the night train to Saigon
Jade relaxing on a snorkelling trip in Thailand

Finally, here’s a few bonus tips that didn’t quite make it to the top ten:

  • Shower gel is a fine alternative to washing machine detergent. Just don’t use too much.
  • Toilet paper is valuable stuff, always keep some with you, especially on a mountain trek. A roll of toilet paper can cost the same as a night’s accommodation high up in the mountains.

    The Himalayas at sunrise
  • Always carry snacks, because you will definitely find yourself in places or on journeys for considerable lengths of time with no access to food. Individually wrapped cereal bars are great. Try to avoid things that melt.
  • Take digital photos of your passport and other important documents, in case you lose them, or in case you need to show them to someone but don’t have the documents on you.
Putting our feet up during a Himalaya trek.
  • Take rechargeable batteries for torches and other gear, and a charger for them. 
  • Learn to open beer and wine bottles without openers. Don’t use your teeth. 

    Mucking about (fallen angel pose) in Lisbon.
  • Carry some US dollars for emergencies. Almost everywhere accepts them as currency, or at least to change them. They’re often essential to pay for visas at the border around SE Asia too.
  • If it’s within your budget (or someone else’s), get yourself a proper adventure camera. Jade bought me the amazing Olympus Tough TG-5, which is waterproof, drop-proof, and packed with features.

    Olympus TG5 camera.
  • Get a Curve card. It’s a Mastercard, so it’s accepted nearly everywhere, and you can use it instead of your credit and debit cards, so you can keep them safe somewhere and only expose your Curve card to potentially risky ATMs and restaurant owners. Curve also converts currencies for you, saving you money on fees. Shameless promo: sign up for Curve here with code NPWZA and you’ll get £5, and so will I.
  • Take a tablet or laptop with you in order to work, research and book travel, or simply watch Netflix. We spent many, many hours on shonky wifi connections from nearby cafes watching Anthony Bourdain on Netflix. Try to download stuff to watch or listen to later if you know wifi might be patchy.

    Lemon tree in Prado Del Rey, Andalusia
  • Practise mindfulness and meditation; you’ll many have periods of time when all you can do is sit and wait, so you may as well put it to good use, and you can continue to practise when you’re back in the “real” world. If you’re new to it or prefer a little guidance, there are some great apps out there for meditation practice, such as Headspace.
Getting to Annapurna base camp

Travelling is very much about experiencing abstract, intangible things. Meeting new people, seeing different parts of the world, experiencing other cultures, eating different food and finding ways to be at ease with discomfort such as sleeping in bad beds or walking for hours with a heavy pack on your back.

Don’t worry about buying souvenirs. They’re just added weight. Take photos, record the sounds, make memories and friends.

Vietnamese fishing boats

As Bourdain says: “It seems that the more places I see and experience, the bigger I realise the world to be. The more I become aware of, the more I realise how relatively little I know of it, how many places I have still to go, how much more there is to learn.

Wild swimming in a pool in Koh Chang, Thailand.
Jade at Ninh Van Bay, Vietnam.
Getting bamboo tattoos in Thailand
Barcelona beach

Leave a comment with any travel tips you have.